Since the founding of Apple Boutique in 1985, sales of Old Master European Paintings has occupied a great section of the company, sometimes great names of the European artistic scene.
Old Masters and painters of skill who worked in Europe. "old master print" original print "old master drawing". In theory an Old Master should be an artist who was fully trained, was a Master of his local artists' guild, and worked independently, but in practice paintings considered to be produced by pupils or workshops will be included in the scope of the term. Therefore, beyond a certain level of competence, date rather than quality is the criterion for using the term. Paintings of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the term often had a starting date of perhaps 1450 or 1470; paintings made before that were "primitives"; but this distinction is no longer made. The original OED from the beginning of the 20th century, defines the term as "a 'master' who lived before the period accounted 'modern', chiefly applied to painters from the 13th to the 16th or 17th century." Rather surprisingly, the first quotation they give is from a popular encyclopedia of 1840: "As a painter of animals, Edwin Landseer far surpasses any of the old masters". There are comparable terms in Dutch, French and German; the Dutch may have been the first to make use of the term, in the 18th century, when it mostly meant painters of the Dutch Golden Age of the previous century. Les Maitres d'autrefois of 1876 by Eugene Fromentin may have helped to popularize the concept, although "vieux maitres" is also used in French. The famous collection in Dresden at the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister is one of the few museums to include the term in its actual name, although many more use it in the title of departments or sections. The collection in the Dresden museum essentially stops at the Baroque period. The end-date is necessarily vague—Goya (1746–1828) is certainly an Old Master, and he was still painting and printmaking at his death in 1828. For example, the term might be used, but usually is not, about John Constable (1776–1837) or Eugène Delacroix (1798–1868). The term tends to be avoided by art historians as too vague, especially when discussing paintings, although the terms Old Master Prints and Old Master drawings are still used. It remains more current in the art trade. Auction houses still usually divide their sales between, for example: "Old Master Paintings", "Nineteenth-century paintings" and "Modern paintings". Christie's defines the term as ranging "from the 14th to the early 19th century".
Artists, most often from early periods, whose hand has been identified by art historians, but to whom no identity can be confidently attached, are often given names by art historians such as Master E.S. (from his monogram), Master of Flémalle (from a previous location of a work), Master of Mary of Burgundy (from a patron), Master of Latin 757 (from the shelf mark of a manuscript he illuminated), Master of the Brunswick Diptych or Master of Schloss Lichtenstein.
Cimabue (Italian, 1240–1302), Giotto di Bondone (Italian, 1267–1337), Duccio (Italian, 1255–1318), Simone Martini (Italian, 1285–1344), Jean Pucelle (French, 1290–1334), Ambrogio Lorenzetti (Italian, fl 1319–1348) , Pietro Lorenzetti (Italian, fl1320–1345), Lorenzo Monaco (Italian, 1370–1425), Masolino (Italian, 1383–1440), Limbourg brothers (Flemish, 1390–1416), Pisanello (Italian, 1394–1455), Sassetta (Italian, 1395–1450), Jean Fouquet (French, 1420–1481),
Gentile da Fabriano (Italian, 1370–1427) Influential International gothic painter Filippo Brunelleschi (Italian, 1377–1446) Architect who designed the dome of Florence Cathedral Lorenzo Ghiberti (Italian, 1378–1455) Florentine sculptor who specialised in International gothic and Classical styles Donatello (Italian, 1386–1466) Important early Renaissance sculptor Paolo Uccello (Italian, 1397–1475) Schematic use of perspective/foreshortening Fra Angelico (Italian, 1400–1455) Religious painter noted for San Marco convent frescoes Masaccio (Italian, 1401–1428) Important early Florentine painter Leon Battista Alberti (Italian, 1404–1472) Genovese architect Andrea del Castagno (Italian, 1410–1457) Piero della Francesca (Italian, 1415–1492) Italian Renaissance painter who pioneered linear perspective Benozzo Gozzoli (Italian, 1420–1497) Alesso Baldovinetti (Italian, 1425–1499) Vincenzo Foppa (Italian, 1425–1515) Antonello da Messina (Italian, 1430–1479) Sicilian painter who pioneered oil painting Cosimo Tura (Italian, 1430–1495) Andrea Mantegna (Italian, 1431–1506) Renaissance painter, a master of perspective and detail Antonio Pollaiuolo (Italian, 1431–1498) Francesco Cossa (Italian, 1435–1477) Melozzo da Forli (Italian, 1438–1494) Luca Signorelli (Italian, 1441–1523) Donato Bramante (Italian, 1444–1514) High Renaissance architect Perugino (Italian, 1445–1523) Verrocchio (Italian, 1435–1488) Sandro Botticelli (Italian, 1445–1510) Florentine Renaissance master Domenico Ghirlandaio (Italian, 1449–1494) Prolific Florentine fresco painter
Francesco Francia (Italian, 1450–1517) Leonardo da Vinci (Italian, 1452–1519) Acclaimed great Renaissance oil painter/draughtsman Cima da Conegliano (Italian, 1459–1517) Lorenzo Costa (Italian, 1460–1535)
Piero di Cosimo (Italian, 1462–1521) Pellegrino da San Daniele (Italian, 1467–1547) Fra Bartolommeo (Italian, 1472–1517) Mariotto Albertinelli (Italian, 1474–1515) Michelangelo (Italian, 1475–1564) Acclaimed Renaissance sculptor, painter and architect Bernardino Luini (Italian, 1475–1532) Marcantonio Raimondi (Italian, 1475–1534) Raphael (Italian, 1483–1520) Acclaimed Renaissance painting prodigy Il Garofalo (Italian, 1481–1559) Ridolfo Ghirlandaio (Italian, 1483–1561) Andrea del Sarto (Italian; 1486–1531) Correggio (Italian, 1490–1534) Parma painter noted for illusionistic frescoes and altarpiece oils Giulio Romano (Italian, 1492–1546)
Venetian painting Renaissance
Domenico Veneziano (Italian, 1400–1461) Jacopo Bellini (Italian, 1400–1470) Gentile Bellini (Italian, 1429–1507) Noted for historical scenes of Venice and portraits of its doges Giovanni Bellini (Italian, 1430–1516) Pioneer of luminous oil painting Bartolommeo Vivarini (Italian, 1432–1499) Carlo Crivelli (Italian, 1435–1495) Alvise Vivarini (Italian, 1445–1503) Vittore Carpaccio (Italian, 1455–1526) Giorgione (Italian, 1477–1510) Pioneer of Venetian School of painting Titian (Italian, c.1477–1576) Important Renaissance exponent of colour painting in oils and frescoes Palma Vecchio (Italian, 1480–1528) Lorenzo Lotto (Italian, 1480–1556) Sebastiano del Piombo (Italian, 1485–1547) Jacopo Sansovino (Italian, 1486–1570) Jacopo Bassano (Italian, 1515–1592) Mannerist painter noted for portraiture and religious genre painting Orazio Vecellio (Italian, 1525–1576) Jacopo Tintoretto (Italian, 1518–1594) Major Venetian painter of monumental religious works Paolo Veronese (Italian, c.1528–1588) One of Venice's leading colourists Jacopo Palma (Italian, 1544–1628)
Baldassare (Italian, fl. 15th Century) Giovanni di Paolo (Italian, 1403–1482) Matteo di Giovanni (Italian, 1430–1495) Francesco di Giorgio (Italian, 1439–1502) Sodoma (Italian, 1477–1549) Giovanni Antonio Bazzi (Italian, 1477–1548) Beccafumi (Italian, 1486–1551)
"Kreuzigung Christi" (English: "Crucifixion of Christ") by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1503
Robert Campin (Flemish, 1375–1444) Northern Renaissance artist who painted Merode Altarpiece Jan van Eyck (1395–1441) Pioneer oil painter Hans Multscher (German, 1400–1467) Stefan Lochner (German, 1400–1451) German painter of the Cologne School Konrad Witz (Swiss, 1400–1447) Rogier van der Weyden (Flemish, 1400–1464) Dutch artist and leading religious panel painter Petrus Christus (Flemish, 1410–1472) Dirk Bouts (Dutch, 1420–1475) Hans Pleydenwurff (German, 1429–1472) Simon Marmion (French, 1420–1489) Meister Francke (German, fl.1424-35) Hans Memling (German born-Flemish, 1430–1494) Flemish artist of the Bruges School Martin Schongauer (German, 1430–1491) Lucas Moser (German, fl.1431-40) Michael Wolgemut (German, 1434–1519) Michael Pacher (Austrian 1435–1498) Hugo van der Goes (Flemish, 1440–1483) Oil painter from the Netherlands Rueland Frueauf the Elder (German, 1440–1507) Veit Stoss (German, 1447–1533) Hieronymus Bosch (Dutch, 1450–1516) One of the greatest of all medieval painters Nicolas Froment (French, fl.1450-90) Gerard David (Flemish, 1450–1523) Geertgen tot Sint Jans (Dutch, 1460–1490) Hans Holbein the Elder (German, 1460–1524) Quentin Massys (Flemish, 1466–1530) Jan Mabuse (Flemish, 1470–1533) Matthias Grunewald (German, 1470–1528) Noted for his intense expressionist religious paintings Albrecht Dürer (German, 1471–1528) Greatest painter and printmaker of the Northern Renaissance Lucas Cranach the Elder (German, 1472–1553) Leading German Renaissance painter Hans Burgkmair (German, 1473–1531) Jean Clouet (French, 1475–1547) Jorg Breu (German, 1475–1537) Albrecht Altdorfer (German, 1480–1538) Danube School of painting Maitre de Moulins (French, fl.1480) Housebook Master (German, fl.1480-90) Leonhard Beck (German, 1480–1542) Hans Baldung Grien (German, 1484–1545) German Renaissance artist Joachim Patenier (Flemish, 1485–1524) Pioneer landscape painter of the Netherlandish Renaissance Jean Duvet (1485–1561) Joos van Cleve (Flemish, 1485–1540)
Bernard van Orley (Flemish, 1488–1541) Hans Springinklee (German, 1490–1540) Wolf Huber (German, 1490–1553) Lucas van Leyden (Dutch, 1494–1533) Jan van Scorel (Dutch, 1495–1562) Hans Holbein the Younger (German, 1497–1543) One of the greatest portrait painters Georg Pencz (German, 1500–1550) Sebald Beham (German, 1500–1550) Barthel Beham (German, 1502–1540) Lucas Cranach the Younger (German, 1515–1586) Pieter Bruegel the Elder (Flemish, c.1525–1569) Leading Flemish artist of his day Egidius Sadeler (Flemish, 1570–1629)
Bartolome Bermejo Alonso Sanchez Coello Jusepe de Ribera Francisco de Zurbarán Diego Velázquez Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo Juan Carreño de Miranda Bartolomé Esteban Murillo Francisco Bayeu y Subías Francisco Goya El Greco
Dosso Dossi (Italian, 1479–1542) Domenico Campagnola (Italian, 1484–1540) Alfonso Lombardi (Italian, 1487–1537) Bartolommeo Bandinelli (Italian, 1493–1560) Pontormo (Italian, 1494–1556) Florentine fresco/oil painter Rosso Fiorentino (Italian, 1494–1540) Maarten van Heemskerck (Dutch, 1498–1574) Alessandro Moretto (Italian, 1498–1555) Giulio Clovio (Croatian born Italian, 1498–1578) Niccolo Tribolo (Italian, 1500–1550) Benvenuto Cellini (Italian, 1500–1571) Parmigianino (Italian, 1503–1540) Mannerist painter/etcher from Parma Angelo Bronzino (Italian, 1503–1572) Jacob Seisenegger (Dutch, 1505–1567) Pieter Aertsen (Dutch, 1508–1575) Francois Clouet (French 1510–1572) Giorgio Vasari (Italian, 1511–1575) Known for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects Antonio Moro (Dutch, 1519–1576) Giovanni Battista Moroni (Italian, 1525–1578) Federico Barocci (Italian, 1526–1612) Giuseppe Arcimboldo (Italian, 1527–1593) Best known for his bizarre Mannerist fruit and vegetable portraits Giambologna (Italian, 1529–1608) Hugely influential Mannerist sculptor Denis Calvaert (Flemish, 1540–1619) El Greco (Greek-born Spanish, 1541–1614) Noted for his dazzling spiritual works and portraits Scipione Pulzone (Italian, 1542–1598) Bartholomeus Spranger (Flemish, 1546–1611) Karel van Mander (Flemish born Dutch, 1548–1606) Giovanni Pietro de Pomis (Italian, 1565?–1633) Best known for his Late-Mannerist work inGraz, Austria Abraham Bloemaert (Dutch, 1566–1651) Joachim Wtewael (Dutch, 1566–1638) Adam Elsheimer (German, 1578–1610) Influential German landscape and history painter who influenced Rubens
Jacopo Chimenti (Italian, 1554–1640)
Giovanni Battista Paggi (Italian, 1554–1627) Antonio Tempesta (Italian, 1555–1630) Lodovico Caracci (Italian, 1555–1619) Bartolomeo Cesi (Italian, 1556–1629) Alessandro Maganza (Italian, 1556–1640) Bernardo Castello (Italian, 1557–1629) Agostino Caracci (Italian, 1557–1602) Lodovico Cigoli (Italian, 1559–1613) Enea Talpino (Italian, 1559–1626) Bartolommeo Carducci (Italian, 1560–1610) Annibale Caracci (Italian, 1560–1609) Bolognese Baroque artist noted for his Farnese Gallery frescoes Orazio Gentileschi (Italian, 1563–1639) Hans Rottenhammer (German, 1564–1625) Pieter Bruegel the Younger (Flemish, 1564–1636) Francisco Pacheco (Spanish, 1564–1654)
Francisco Ribalta (Spanish, 1565–1628) Juan de Jauregui y Aguilar (Spanish, 1566–1641) Jan Brueghel the Elder (Flemish, 1568–1625) Juan Martinez Montanes (Spanish, 1568–1649) Caravaggio (Italian, 1573–1610) Milanese painter noted for his figurative realism and tenebrism Guido Reni (Italian, 1575–1642) Gregorio Fernandez (Spanish, 1576–1636) Peter Paul Rubens (Flemish, 1577–1640) Foremost Baroque history painter and portraitist Adam Elsheimer (German, 1578–1610) Bernardo Strozzi (Italian, 1581–1644) Jean de Beaugrand (French, 1584–1640) Johann Liss (German, 1590–1631) Jusepe de Ribera (Spanish, 1591– 1652) Naples-based Spanish religious realist painter Guercino (Italian, 1591–1666) Artemisia Gentileschi (Italian, 1592–1656) Georges de La Tour (French, 1593–1652) French caravaggesque painter Jacob Jordaens (Flemish, 1593–1678)
Louis Le Nain (French, 1593–1648) Nicolas Poussin (French, 1594–1665) Possibly the greatest classical academic painter of all time Pietro da Cortona (Italian, 1596–1669) Italian High Baroque fresco painter Francisco de Zurbarán (Spanish, 1598–1664) Master of chiarscuro who did religious paintings and still lifes Gianlorenzo Bernini (Italian, 1598–1680) The dominant sculptor and architect of Counter Reformation Baroque Antoine Le Nain (French, 1599–1648) Anthony van Dyck (Flemish, 1599–1641) Infant prodigy and pupil of Rubens who was noted for his portraits Diego Velázquez (Spanish, 1599–1660) Court painter who was possibly the greatest Spanish old master Claude Lorrain (French, 1600–1682) Classical landscape artist who developed Claudean Style Alonso Cano (Spanish, 1601–1667) Jan Brueghel the Younger (Flemish, 1601–1678) Mathieu Le Nain (French, 1607–1677) Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione (Italian, 1609–1664) Genoa painter and etcher who founded monotype Mattia Preti (Italian, 1613–1699) Salvator Rosa (Italian, 1613–1673) Carlo Dolci (Italian, 1616–1686) Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (Spanish, 1617–1682) Successful Spanish Baroque artist Juan de Valdes Leal (Spanish, 1622–1690) Pedro de Mena (Spanish, 1628–1688) Luca Giordano (Italian, 1634–1705) Andrea Pozzo (Italian, 1642–1709) Hans Adam Weissenkircher (Austrian, 1646–1695) Johann Michael Rottmayr (Austrian, 1656–1730)
Dutch Golden Age Painting and Flemish Baroque painting
The Concert by Gerard van Honthorst, 1623
Roelant Savery (Flemish born Dutch, 1576–1639) Frans Snyders (Flemish, 1578–1657) Undisputed master of Baroque still life from the Antwerp School Frans Hals (Dutch, 1580–1666) One of the greatest post Renaissance portraits Pieter Lastman (Dutch, 1583–1633) Hendrick Terbrugghen (Dutch, 1588–1629) Dutch Realist genre painter and Utrecht Caravaggisti Gerrit van Honthorst (Dutch, 1590–1636) Wouter Crabeth II (Dutch, 1594–1644) Dirck van Baburen (Dutch, 1595–1624) Pieter de Grebber (Dutch, 1600–1652) Matthias Stom (Dutch, 1600–1652) Adriaen Brouwer (Flemish. 1605–1638) Noted for his tavern based genre paintings Rembrandt van Rijn (Dutch, 1606–1669) World's greatest portrait artist Jan Lievens (Dutch, 1607–1674) Jacob Adriaensz Backer (Dutch, 1608–1651) Ferdinand Bol (Dutch, 1616–1680)
Jan Havickszoon Steen (Dutch, 1625–1679) Leiden School, tavern genre scenes Jan Davidsz de Heem (Dutch, 1609–1683) Still life artist, Utecht/Antwerp School David Teniers the Younger (Flemish, 1610–1690)Dutch Realist, peasant/guardroom scenes Adriaen van Ostade (Dutch, 1610–1685) Peasant scene artist, Haarlem School Govert Flinck (Dutch, 1615–1660) Gerrit Dou (Dutch, 1613–1675) Frans van Mieris the Elder (Dutch, 1635–1681) Gerard Terborch (Dutch, 1617–1681) Haarlem School genre painter Willem Kalf (Dutch, 1619–1693) Noted for still life pictures Albert Cuyp (Dutch, 1620–1691) Dordrecht School landscape painter Samuel van Hoogstraten (Dutch, 1627–1678) Genre painter Jan de Bray (Dutch, 1627-1697) Jacob van Ruisdael (Dutch, 1628–1682) Haarlem School landscapes Gabriel Metsu (Dutch, 1629–1667) Intimate small scale genre scenes Pieter de Hooch (Dutch, 1629–1683) Delft School of Dutch genre painting Johannes Vermeer (Dutch, 1632–1675) Delft School Dutch genre painter, little known in his own lifetime Meindert Hobbema (Dutch, 1638–1709) Aert de Gelder (Dutch 1645–1727) Adriaen van der Werff (Dutch, 1659–1722) Rachel Ruysch (Dutch, 1664–1750) Important female flower painter from Amsterdam
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (Italian, 1691–1770) Known for his Würzburg Residence frescoes Giovan Battista Pittoni or Giambattista Pittoni (Italian, 1687–1767), know for sacred families and childs Giovanni Battista Piazzetta (Italian, 1682–1754) Canaletto (Italian, 1697–1768) Famous topographical/architectural landscape paintings Francesco Guardi (Italian, 1712–1793) view painter of Venice School Jean-Antoine Watteau (French, 1684–1721) Noted for The Embarkation for Cythera and fête galantes Giovanni Maria Morlaiter (Italian, 1699–1781) François Boucher (French, 1703–1770) Created mythologie galante Johann Georg Platzer (Austrian, 1704–1761) Prolific Austrian Rococo painter Pompeo Batoni (Italian, 1708–1787) Bernardo Bellotto (Italian, 1720–1780) Canaletto's nephew, urban landscape paintings Franz Anton Maulbertsch (Austrian, 1724–1796) Jean-Honoré Fragonard (French, 1732–1806) Best known for The Swing
Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin (French, 1699–1779) Important 18th Century still life artist Martin Johann Schmidt (Austrian, 1718–1801) Important 18th Century Austrian Late-Baroque painter Jean-Baptiste Greuze (French, 1725–1805) Important 18th Century painter
William Dobson Thomas Gainsborough Francis Hayman Nicholas Hilliard William Hogarth George Jamesone Godfrey Kneller Thomas Lawrence Peter Lely John Opie Henry Raeburn Allan Ramsay Joshua Reynolds George Romney James Thornhill John Michael Wright Joseph Wright of Derby Johann Zoffany
Anton Raphael Mengs (German, 1728–1779) Gaetano Gandolfi (Italian, 1734–1802) Benjamin West (American born British, 1738–1820) Jacques-Louis David (French, 1748–1825) Passionate classical style political master painter Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (French, 1780–1867) Neoclassical and Romantic exponent of "academic art"
Sir Joshua Reynolds (British, 1723–1792) Influential English portrait painter Théodore Géricault (French, 1791 - 1824) Francisco Goya (Spanish, 1746–1828) Spanish court painter and great portraitist Henry Raeburn (Scottish, 1756–1823) William Blake (British, 1757–1827) Symbolist religious painter, printmaker and book illustrator Antoine-Jean Gros (French, 1771–1835) French Romantic painter, pupil of Jacque Louis David Eugène Delacroix (French, 1798–1863)